I think the solution in your self-answer is just a partial mitigation for an underlying problem, and your expectations for output quality are way too low.
From the pictures in the question, there's serious overextrusion and stringing going on. The stringing could be caused by a secondary problem (bad/insufficient retraction settings), but heavy overextrusion will cause there to be extreme residual pressure left between the extruder gear and the nozzle (especially in a bowden setup, though it's not clear what printer you're using or if it has a bowden tube) that retraction will be unlikely to sufficiently relieve, so it's also a characteristic consequence of overextrusion.
As Pᴀᴜʟsᴛᴇʀ2 noted in a comment, having the filament diameter set to 1.75 mm while your printer actually uses 3 mm filament could cause this. Cura (especially CuraEngine invoked via command line rather than the GUI) is particularly bad about getting this wrong if you don't pass the options in exactly the right way.
Note that lowering the infill percentage as you did would help get somewhat decent results with serious overextrusion, since the excess material has somewhere to go (into the unfilled part of the infill region). But you'll still be getting really bad (what I would call unacceptably bad) prints compared to what you could/should get.