Does anyone know of any academic research behind 3D printer hot end/liquefier design?

All I’ve found is papers on liquefier dynamics where they model polymer flow and go so far as to compare the influence of nozzle geometry variables on the melt behaviour of the material. Also, I have found some papers on FEA of the heat sink.

Other than that, no development or analysis seems to have been conducted on the hot end. Different nozzle materials and geometries? Different heater block geometries? Different heat break design? Different overall design? The effect of an angled hot end on the shear of polymer flow? Effects of melt zone length?

I understand the principles behind the current design, but it surprises me that no further work has been conducted. Everything seems to always point back to the RepRap design which appears to have only been produced through trial and error to reach a “it’s good enough” phase. Now that design seems to be followed as gospel by everyone else.

Apologies if this question is somewhat broad.

  • $\begingroup$ I don't think there's much point, since it's easy to calibrate your system. We're not producing parts for rocket ships or brain surgeons,so extreme precision isn't relevant. $\endgroup$ – Carl Witthoft Nov 8 '19 at 15:58
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    $\begingroup$ Hotend design is applied science. Academic sciences usually don't concern a lot about applications. For example, there are academic papers about how suitable (or rather unsuitable) ballistic media are for simulating arrow wounds... where the number of arrow related incidents that need this research is almost nonexistent nowadays. $\endgroup$ – Trish Nov 8 '19 at 16:14

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