Cura's solution can be found in the "Jerk Control" settings.
Short analogy; when driving, and a corner is coming up, you basically have two options to take the corner smoothly; you can take the corner with a wide turning radius, or you can slow down. Taking a neighborhood street corner at highway speeds just doesn't work even if there's nobody else on the road; you'll very likely overshoot the corner, if you're in a RWD car you'll likely lose the back end and fishtail (or worse), and the occupants of the car, yourself included, are going to be thrown around violently, to no-one's real advantage other than to say you took that turn at 70.
Back in 3D printing land, something similar applies; as the extruder approaches a sharp corner, it will be disadvantageous all around for the extruder to try to maintain 70mm/s around what's basically an instantaneous turn. Your jerk (stopping the moving axis) and acceleration (starting the non-moving axis) settings are going to exceed the physical capabilities of your steppers and drive belts, making the corner less accurate (and in the extreme, losing steps causing layer shifts), and if your belts are not perfectly tensioned, and really even if they are, you'll get "ringing" (the 3D equivalent of fishtailing as you straighten out after the apex of a turn while driving).
The first option, cutting the corner, is your corner-to-arc replacement; rather than try for an instantaneous turn, just soften that corner by enough that you're within what's possible for the stepper motors in terms of acceleration. This keeps the speed and surface quality high, but necessarily reduces the accuracy of the print to the model.
So instead, Cura encourages the second option; slow down before the turn. Enabling Jerk Control and tweaking the associated settings lets the Cura slicer reduce head speed gradually as the extruder approaches a sharp corner, thus reducing the torque required to stop motion in one axis and start it in another, to something the steppers can actually accomplish at a rate you'd call "instantaneous". This keeps the corners sharp and avoids ringing along straight lines after a corner, at the cost of a slower overall print speed (though not as much as reducing overall print speed to the speed at which the extruder will take corners).
Now, I realize that this is the opposite of "increasing corner speed"; jerk control exists to slow the extruder near corners. However, increasing corner speed is rarely what you actually want, for the reasons stated above. If you really want nicely-rounded corners, fillet them in CAD, and then the slicer will generate a sequence of arbitrarily short linear movements (true G2/G3/G5 curve interpolation from the purely polygonal STL geometry has been experimented with, but currently more trouble than it's worth) which limit the change of velocity of the extruder as it rounds the corner, instead of making the rounding an "artifact" of printer limitations. At fine enough detail levels of conversion to an STL, the results are indistinguishable from a true curve.