What you are looking at is the top of a Makerbot MK10-style hotend. It appears that the filament has snapped off at the entry of the heat break at the top of the cold end. The image below shows how the hotend is constructed, from top to bottom, brasss nozzle, heater element block, heat break (with PTFE liner, or not if it is an all metal hotend) and the cold end cooling block.
You indeed have a jam if an increased temperature cannot push the filament out. What you can try is to heat up the hotend (above the normal filament printing temperature, e.g. 10-20 °C higher; a too high temperature can cause filament to carbonize) with the feeder stepper removed pushing a 1.5 mm drill bit from the top of the heat break and see if you can push the obstruction out. If you have a fine needle or a specific nozzle cleaning tool, you could try from the nozzle opening. If not, you need to take the hotend apart and need to consider to buy some spare parts (at least a new PTFE liner if present), this is usually more simple than cleaning the small parts. If it is ABS filament you can use acetone to dissolve the filament, but for PLA/PETG there are no simple solvents.
The image below shows an exploded view of the assembly.