No, settings are stored in memory (or the equivalent storage location).
When a new firmware is uploaded, the values set in the newly configured firmware can be set by
Restore Defaults from the Marlin printer LCD the user interface. Alternatively, you could print a G-code file containing
M500, or send them over using a console.
Reset all configurable settings to their factory defaults.
To also reset settings in EEPROM, follow with M500.
Save all configurable settings to EEPROM
See M502 will reset all configurable settings to their "factory defaults", which settings are those? for more information.
This answer hints to a similar description:
Installing firmware does not by itself alter the EEPROM, so these settings needed to be seeded into SRAM via
M502 and then saved into EEPROM via
Please note that the EEPROM on 32-bit boards are emulated. There are several ways to emulate EEPROM storage via flash storage in the ARM processor or using an SD card. There is a solution for an actual EEPROM, but that requires buying an EEPROM chip and breakout board on the I2C connector if it has such an output port. Selection of which is done in the
Configuration_adv.h config file.