I usually see Ender 3's set at 93 for the E-steps which is still too low, and require adjusting to around 99 steps/mm, but a brand new Ender 3 (base model), running 18.104.22.168 firmware, was extruding at approximately 20% when doing a calibration test.
It wasn't until I set the E-steps to 460 steps/mm that it extruded correctly.
The test file is the same file I use for all Ender 3's so I know there were no slicing errors to blame (flow, etc).
I swapped extruder motors with a working printer to rule out the motor and ensured there was no nozzle clog. It was not the wrong motor (I know the Z motor is set to 400 for example, but this was not a Z motor, it was the proper E motor) and the 20 % extrusion was consistent with the swapped motor.
Clearly, it came from the factory like this. But this is the highest adjustment I have ever heard of.
Has anyone experienced this before?