# Filament settings determination

I am currently working on a project that uses multiple 3D models which is to be printed, with a variety of 3D printers.

May I know how should I measure the Filament density of a particular filament. Currently, I am attempting to use the Mass/Volume formula, and am simply measuring the mass by weighing the filament. However, how do I measure the volume?

My second query is related to the 'cost' section in PrusaSlicer. I was told to input a specific value, nonetheless, I do not comprehend what to input.

Finally, for the printing, what should be an appropriate Idle Temperature; Nozzle temperature for 1st and other layers, as well as the bed temperatures with the same parameters(1st layer and other layers).

Your expertise and explanation would greatly benefit me!

## Density

Filament has a thickness and length. with those, you can treat it as a long cylinder. The volume of a cylinder is $$V=l\times \pi \left( \frac d 2 \right)^2$$

Measure a length of the filament, measure the thickness, weigh it, and plug in the values.

$$\rho=\frac m V$$

The density of filaments can also be grabbed from the MSDS (Material Safty Data Sheet). A list of common densities:

Filament Density
PLA $$1.24 - 1.25 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$$
ABS $$1.04 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$$
PETG $$1.27 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$$
TPU $$1.21 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$$

## Cost

The cost entry depends on the unit: It can be cost per kilogram $$C_\pu{kg}$$ or cost per meter $$C_\pu{m}$$. In both cases, the density and filament diameter can be used to turn one into the other: $$C_\pu{m}=C_\pu{kg}\times \frac {\pi \left( \frac d 2 \right)^2}{\rho}$$

## Idle Temperature

This is a filament dependent temperature, and also called Standby temperature. It should be lower than the printing temperature by quite a bit to prevent oozing, and shouldn't be used too much in the first place, as it is a powerhungry operation. It can be used for paus operations in which you insert things into the print, to speed up resuming print, but otherwise... there's little use for it on a single extruder machine unless you swap build plates. On a multi-extruder machine, Idle-temp can speed up printing a lot.

Typically, the idle temperature in a multi-extruder machine is $$\pu{20 - 50 °C}$$ lower than the print temperature, depending on preferences and material, and set to such a point that the nozzle does not ooze.

## 1st Layer temperature

Generally, the 1st layer is printed at exactly the same print temperature as the rest. However, printing at an elevated temperatures can help solving a couple adhesion problems.

## Print and bed temperature

This is material dependent. Look up your filament manufacturer's recommendations for both print and bed temperature and run a couple tests. There are common ranges

Filament Nozzle Bed
PLA $$\pu{180-220 °C}$$ $$\pu{20-60 °C}$$
ABS $$\pu{210-260 °C}$$ $$\pu{90-110 °C}$$
PETG $$\pu{220-250 °C}$$ $$\pu{50-80 °C}$$
TPU $$\pu{210-230 °C}$$ $$\pu{30-60 °C}$$