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I am currently working on a project that uses multiple 3D models which is to be printed, with a variety of 3D printers.

May I know how should I measure the Filament density of a particular filament. Currently, I am attempting to use the Mass/Volume formula, and am simply measuring the mass by weighing the filament. However, how do I measure the volume?

My second query is related to the 'cost' section in PrusaSlicer. I was told to input a specific value, nonetheless, I do not comprehend what to input.

Finally, for the printing, what should be an appropriate Idle Temperature; Nozzle temperature for 1st and other layers, as well as the bed temperatures with the same parameters(1st layer and other layers).

Your expertise and explanation would greatly benefit me!

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Density

Filament has a thickness and length. with those, you can treat it as a long cylinder. The volume of a cylinder is $$V=l\times \pi \left( \frac d 2 \right)^2$$

Measure a length of the filament, measure the thickness, weigh it, and plug in the values.

$$\rho=\frac m V$$

The density of filaments can also be grabbed from the MSDS (Material Safty Data Sheet). A list of common densities:

Filament Density
PLA $1.24 - 1.25 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$
ABS $1.04 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$
PETG $1.27 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$
TPU $1.21 \frac {\pu g} {\pu{cm^3}}$

Cost

The cost entry depends on the unit: It can be cost per kilogram $C_\pu{kg}$ or cost per meter $C_\pu{m}$. In both cases, the density and filament diameter can be used to turn one into the other: $$C_\pu{m}=C_\pu{kg}\times \frac {\pi \left( \frac d 2 \right)^2}{\rho}$$

Idle Temperature

This is a filament dependent temperature, and also called Standby temperature. It should be lower than the printing temperature by quite a bit to prevent oozing, and shouldn't be used too much in the first place, as it is a powerhungry operation. It can be used for paus operations in which you insert things into the print, to speed up resuming print, but otherwise... there's little use for it on a single extruder machine unless you swap build plates. On a multi-extruder machine, Idle-temp can speed up printing a lot.

Typically, the idle temperature in a multi-extruder machine is $\pu{20 - 50 °C}$ lower than the print temperature, depending on preferences and material, and set to such a point that the nozzle does not ooze.

1st Layer temperature

Generally, the 1st layer is printed at exactly the same print temperature as the rest. However, printing at an elevated temperatures can help solving a couple adhesion problems.

Print and bed temperature

This is material dependent. Look up your filament manufacturer's recommendations for both print and bed temperature and run a couple tests. There are common ranges

Filament Nozzle Bed
PLA $\pu{180-220 °C}$ $\pu{20-60 °C}$
ABS $\pu{210-260 °C}$ $\pu{90-110 °C}$
PETG $\pu{220-250 °C}$ $\pu{50-80 °C}$
TPU $\pu{210-230 °C}$ $\pu{30-60 °C}$
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