Okay so one problem at a time.. You have several issues.
1 You will likely note while it prints, the pillar will almost catch and sometimes twang as the layers get higher and higher. Issue here is you are over extruding a bit and the head is dragging on the print. Add some leverage and then you get this strange pattern. Letting it cool more between layers or by adding a fan will also help. A small pillar like this will not have much time to cool.
Or it could be that your Z is not straight. Whats the name of this test? Right the Z resonance test. Check out your smooth rods and screws and see if they are perfect or not.
2 Hmm maybe some oozing / over extrusion. I mean it will never be perfect.
3 Looks good to me. You are printing PLA not ABS?. Looking at your temps and I hope you are doing ABS.. Which probably should bridge a bit better. That said even my highly calibrated machines would have a hard time with a bridge like that. I've been at this for years. Fan will help. Different material will help. I mean you are printing over air. That said 1-2 degrees will make a difference. Try slowing it down. Try lowering temp. Add that fan. Remember every spool will need a new perfect temp. Even a different color will need calibration as the pigments change the temperature profile.
Last over all, simplify 3d seems to really help. I rarely spend time calibrating these days. Albeit they cost a lot. no affiliation.
I also like this visual guide
EDIT. I see you have added more photos!
For the Z axis, I stick with my first assessment. Over-extrusion. Or it could just be getting too hot the higher you go. Maybe add a min time between layers option if your slicer supports it. Fan is good too.
XY resonance.. Tricky tricky. My research shows this can be solved by using a different slicer program. You will have to research how to solve this with your preferred program. Maybe try to tighten belts, and tweek your oozebane settings. I would also play with acceleration and Jerk at the Firmware level..
Last one, Bridging. You have bigger issues than bridging. All that shows is you don't have temp dialed in 100% yet. 230 might be high.. 85 for PLA would be high as well.