If you're talking about the shape of the end result, rather than the constituent elements of the model - the answer is no, there is no simple geometric restriction. Have a look at 3D benchy for an example of how print quality can be affected by different aspects.
One obvious issue is overhangs, so the orientation of the part is important for printing. A flat circle will (on a cartesian printer) come out smooth as X any Y move in sync, and have good support. A vertical circle will have steps introduced by the slicing which quantises X and Y from layer to latyer.
Sharp, un-supported corners may be the weakest aspect to resolve in the print - extruded filament tends to shrink as it cools, but as far as I know the errors like this can be reduced by printing more slowly (and reducing the dynamic flexing of the frame too).
Talking about a top surface of an extruded n-gon, if you look at the slicing output, you'll see infill in the bulk, with a layer filling only the top 3 or 4 layers. There are several infill patern options, but yes, there is scope for a scenario where the top layer needs to bridge a long way. However, since the alternate layers fill in orthogonal directions this should be a minimal effect. Tweaking the infill percentage, or chamfering the corners can fix these small defects.