As you are an experienced developer, these links should help:
This is a related question, but for Ubuntu How to build CuraEngine?
Wikipedia has an informative page on Cura, which lists the Github development pages:
Reading the development pages is a good place to start. The Cura Github development page does contain resources for Windows.
The top level Ultimaker Github page contains links to all of the relevant repositories, amongst other useful resources, including:
- CuraEngine - CuraEngine is a powerful, fast and robust engine for processing 3D models into 3D printing instruction for Ultimaker
and other GCode based 3D printers. It is part of the larger open
source project called "Cura".
- Cura - 3D printer / slicing GUI built on top of the Uranium framework
- cura-build - Build scripts for Cura
With respect to Python, I, myself, am slowly making my way through this Python tutorial, Python Code Academy. However, there are a many other good Python tutorials out there, the best resource is probably Python.org.
One thing to note is that Python 2.x and 3.x are markedly different (see Should I use Python 2 or Python 3 for my development activity?). What should I learn as a beginner: Python 2 OR Python 3? is also an interesting read.