While printing a simple model, my printer starts to layer-shift the build in a direction suddenly. I used the default setting for ultimaker Cura 3.4.1. It has done this same thing for multiple different prints. I would guess it is the software.
In addition to the other answer to complete the overview, your stepper motor may not get enough power and misses steps, increasing the current by adjusting the stepper driver voltage could also solve the issue (when the current is too low that is! never just increase this to try out, you could damage the stepper, the drivers or the board, so beware).
You have a case of layer shift. Layer shifts happened to me in 3 ways:
- The movement of the axis is hindered. Check if all cables run freely and without any chance to catch! improper cable chains can cause binding and stop the printhead or bed in movement and thus induce a shift.
- The acceleration might be too fast. Shift the acceleration of the printer movements down a notch. Don't print faster than ~60.
- The model might be broken. Re-slice the model just in case.