Yes, you can damage stepper drivers when you unplug stepper motors. Hot (un)plugging of stepper cables can cause voltage spikes that can destroy the stepper drivers. Furthermore, shorting out the fan may have caused damage also to other parts of the board (voltage regulator, fuse, etc ). These controller boards are not that expensive, ordering a spare would ...
For Windows 10 driver, go directly to the Microsoft update catalogue.
Download the .cab file, extract the contents. Using Device Manager update the driver for the partially installed device. After the update TronXY-2 now appears as a COM port.