Polypropylene should be good, and relatively easy to print. Prinsco rate its resistance to NaOH as A-Excellent.
Ultimaker provide a useful guide to the chemical resistance properties of 3D printing filaments.
The hotend itself consists of basically 3 parts:
The filament path, aka Coolend. It consists of the heartbreak, cooling solution and anything up from it.
The heater block, that holds everything together
The nozzle, in which the filament melts and is pushed out.
The part of the hotend assembly that gets to be in the most contact with the particles that are ...
Abrasive filaments require a stronger nozzle indeed. They also require an all-metal hotend. If your hotend wasn't all-metal, there's a good chance you've damaged it.
The PEEK/PTFE in your hotend doesn't like going above 240 Celsius and tends to be irreparably damaged if used too long above 250 Celsius.
Without images of the problem it is difficult to diagnose, but, the described symptoms sounds as if the nozzle is too close to the bed. If the nozzle is too close to the bed, and the extruder not strong enough, the filament flow is very limited due to pressure caused by a very small opening between the nozzle and the bed. Skipping of the extruder may wear ...