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I would not recommend changing Arduino powering. You can either do as you say and power Arduino by giving it regulated 5V to Vin, but then the ATMEGA2560 still will be powered through the 5V voltage regulator. The voltage regulator (NCP1117ST50T3G) needs to be supplied with 6.5V to give out regulated 5V. So you will be powering the Arduino with some 4V, ...


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You indicated that you were using 24 volts, implying you have a 24 volt bed. ATX power supplies do not have 24 volt outputs. The highest is 12 volts which would heat up the bed, but not fast or probably to full temperature.


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A more powerful PSU only would solve the problem in two cases: Either your PSU is anemic and underpowered in the first place, or you want you'd separate the bed's power supply from the rest of the machine - by using a higher Voltage for the bed. This would however need you to regulate the heating by having the board control not the bed directly but, control ...


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